[LeetCode]Encode String with Shortest Length

题目描述:

LeetCode 471. Encode String with Shortest Length

Given a non-empty string, encode the string such that its encoded length is the shortest.

The encoding rule is: k[encoded_string], where the encoded_string inside the square brackets is being repeated exactly k times.

Note:

  1. k will be a positive integer and encoded string will not be empty or have extra space.
  2. You may assume that the input string contains only lowercase English letters. The string's length is at most 160.
  3. If an encoding process does not make the string shorter, then do not encode it. If there are several solutions, return any of them is fine.

Example 1:

Input: "aaa"
Output: "aaa"
Explanation: There is no way to encode it such that it is shorter than the input string, so we do not encode it.

Example 2:

Input: "aaaaa"
Output: "5[a]"
Explanation: "5[a]" is shorter than "aaaaa" by 1 character.

Example 3:

Input: "aaaaaaaaaa"
Output: "10[a]"
Explanation: "a9[a]" or "9[a]a" are also valid solutions, both of them have the same length = 5, which is the same as "10[a]".

Example 4:

Input: "aabcaabcd"
Output: "2[aabc]d"
Explanation: "aabc" occurs twice, so one answer can be "2[aabc]d".

Example 5:

Input: "abbbabbbcabbbabbbc"
Output: "2[2[abbb]c]"
Explanation: "abbbabbbc" occurs twice, but "abbbabbbc" can also be encoded to "2[abbb]c", so one answer can be "2[2[abbb]c]".

题目大意:

给定一个非空字符串,将其编码使得编码长度最短。

编码规则为 k[encoded_string], 其中中括号内的字符串encoded_string 重复k次

注意:

  1. k是正整数,编码字符串不会为空或者包含额外的空白字符
  2. 你可以假设字符串只包含小写英文字母。字符串长度最多160
  3. 如果编码不能使字符串变短,就不要编码。如果答案不唯一,任意返回其一即可

解题思路:

记忆化搜索

利用字典dp记录字符串的最优编码串

枚举分隔点p, 将字符串拆解为left, right左右两部分

尝试将left调用solve函数进行编码压缩,并对right递归调用encode函数进行搜索

将left和right组合的最短字符串返回,并更新dp

Python代码:

class Solution(object):
    def __init__(self):
        self.dp = dict()

    def encode(self, s):
        """
        :type s: str
        :rtype: str
        """
        size = len(s)
        if size <= 1: return s
        if s in self.dp: return self.dp[s]
        ans = s
        for p in range(1, size + 1):
            left, right = s[:p], s[p:]
            t = self.solve(left) + self.encode(right)
            if len(t) < len(ans): ans = t
        self.dp[s] = ans
        return ans

    def solve(self, s):
        ans = s
        size = len(s)
        for x in range(1, size / 2 + 1):
            if size % x or s[:x] * (size / x) != s: continue
            y = str(size / x) + '[' + self.encode(s[:x]) + ']'
            if len(y) < len(ans): ans = y
        return ans

 

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