[LeetCode]Concatenated Words

题目描述:

LeetCode 472. Concatenated Words

Given a list of words, please write a program that returns all concatenated words in the given list of words.

A concatenated word is defined as a string that is comprised entirely of at least two shorter words in the given array.

Example:

Input: ["cat","cats","catsdogcats","dog","dogcatsdog","hippopotamuses","rat","ratcatdogcat"]

Output: ["catsdogcats","dogcatsdog","ratcatdogcat"]

Explanation: "catsdogcats" can be concatenated by "cats", "dog" and "cats"; 
 "dogcatsdog" can be concatenated by "dog", "cats" and "dog"; 
"ratcatdogcat" can be concatenated by "rat", "cat", "dog" and "cat".

Note:

  1. The number of elements of the given array will not exceed 10,000
  2. The length sum of elements in the given array will not exceed 600,000.
  3. The returned elements order does not matter.

题目大意:

给定一组单词,编写程序返回所有由别的单词拼接而成的单词。

拼接是指至少由给定数组中的两个更短的单词组合。

注意:

  1. 数组长度不会超过10000
  2. 单词总长度不会超过600000
  3. 返回结果的顺序无所谓

解题思路:

解法I 深度优先搜索(Depth First Search)

Python代码:

class Solution(object):
    def findAllConcatenatedWordsInADict(self, words):
        """
        :type words: List[str]
        :rtype: List[str]
        """
        ans = []
        self.wordSet = set(words)
        for word in words:
            self.wordSet.remove(word)
            if self.search(word):
                ans.append(word)
            self.wordSet.add(word)
        return ans

    def search(self, word):
        if word in self.wordSet:
            return True
        for idx in range(1, len(word)):
            if word[:idx] in self.wordSet and self.search(word[idx:]):
                return True
        return False

解法II 字典树(Trie)

思路同前,使用字典树Trie替换Set,理论上可以提升查找效率。

然而,下面的代码返回MLE。o(╯□╰)o

LeetCode OJ放宽了Python的内存和时长限制,下面的代码可以通过系统测试。

Python代码:

class Solution(object):
    def findAllConcatenatedWordsInADict(self, words):
        """
        :type words: List[str]
        :rtype: List[str]
        """
        self.trie = Trie()
        ans = []
        for word in words:
            self.trie.insert(word)
        for word in words:
            if self.search(word):
                ans.append(word)
        return ans

    def search(self, word):
        node = self.trie.root
        for idx, letter in enumerate(word):
            node = node.children.get(letter)
            if node is None:
                return False
            suffix = word[idx+1:]
            if node.isWord and (self.trie.search(suffix) or self.search(suffix)):
                return True
        return False

class TrieNode:
    def __init__(self):
        self.children = dict()
        self.isWord = False

class Trie:
    def __init__(self):
        self.root = TrieNode()

    def insert(self, word):
        node = self.root
        for letter in word:
            child = node.children.get(letter)
            if child is None:
                child = TrieNode()
                node.children[letter] = child
            node = child
        node.isWord = True

    def search(self, word):
        node = self.root
        for letter in word:
            node = node.children.get(letter)
            if node is None:
                return False
        return node.isWord

 

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