## 题目描述：

LeetCode 770. Basic Calculator IV

Given an `expression` such as `expression = "e + 8 - a + 5"` and an evaluation map such as `{"e": 1}` (given in terms of `evalvars = ["e"]` and `evalints = [1]`), return a list of tokens representing the simplified expression, such as `["-1*a","14"]`

• An expression alternates chunks and symbols, with a space separating each chunk and symbol.
• A chunk is either an expression in parentheses, a variable, or a non-negative integer.
• A variable is a string of lowercase letters (not including digits.) Note that variables can be multiple letters, and note that variables never have a leading coefficient or unary operator like `"2x"` or `"-x"`.

Expressions are evaluated in the usual order: brackets first, then multiplication, then addition and subtraction. For example, `expression = "1 + 2 * 3"` has an answer of `["7"]`.

The format of the output is as follows:

• For each term of free variables with non-zero coefficient, we write the free variables within a term in sorted order lexicographically. For example, we would never write a term like `"b*a*c"`, only `"a*b*c"`.
• Terms have degree equal to the number of free variables being multiplied, counting multiplicity. (For example, `"a*a*b*c"` has degree 4.) We write the largest degree terms of our answer first, breaking ties by lexicographic order ignoring the leading coefficient of the term.
• The leading coefficient of the term is placed directly to the left with an asterisk separating it from the variables (if they exist.)  A leading coefficient of 1 is still printed.
• An example of a well formatted answer is `["-2*a*a*a", "3*a*a*b", "3*b*b", "4*a", "5*c", "-6"]`
• Terms (including constant terms) with coefficient 0 are not included.  For example, an expression of "0" has an output of [].

Examples:

```Input: expression = "e + 8 - a + 5", evalvars = ["e"], evalints = [1]
Output: ["-1*a","14"]

Input: expression = "e - 8 + temperature - pressure",
evalvars = ["e", "temperature"], evalints = [1, 12]
Output: ["-1*pressure","5"]

Input: expression = "(e + 8) * (e - 8)", evalvars = [], evalints = []
Output: ["1*e*e","-64"]

Input: expression = "7 - 7", evalvars = [], evalints = []
Output: []

Input: expression = "a * b * c + b * a * c * 4", evalvars = [], evalints = []
Output: ["5*a*b*c"]

Input: expression = "((a - b) * (b - c) + (c - a)) * ((a - b) + (b - c) * (c - a))",
evalvars = [], evalints = []
Output: ["-1*a*a*b*b","2*a*a*b*c","-1*a*a*c*c","1*a*b*b*b","-1*a*b*b*c","-1*a*b*c*c","1*a*c*c*c","-1*b*b*b*c","2*b*b*c*c","-1*b*c*c*c","2*a*a*b","-2*a*a*c","-2*a*b*b","2*a*c*c","1*b*b*b","-1*b*b*c","1*b*c*c","-1*c*c*c","-1*a*a","1*a*b","1*a*c","-1*b*c"]
```

Note:

1. `expression` will have length in range `[1, 250]`.
2. `evalvars, evalints` will have equal lengths in range `[0, 100]`.

## Python代码：

``````class Solution(object):
def calc(self, op, left, right):
if op == '+':
left.update(right)
return left
if op == '-':
left.subtract(right)
return left
ans = collections.Counter()
for lk, lv in left.items():
for rk, rv in right.items():
nk = tuple(sorted(lk + rk)) if lk and rk else lk or rk
ans[nk] += lv * rv
return ans

def basicCalculatorIV(self, expression, evalvars, evalints):
"""
:type expression: str
:type evalvars: List[str]
:type evalints: List[int]
:rtype: List[str]
"""
evaldict = {v : i for v, i, in zip(evalvars, evalints)}
s = re.sub(r'[\d\w]+', ' \g<0> ', expression)
s = re.sub(r'\(', ' ( ', s)
s = re.sub(r'\)', ' ) ', s)
expression = [str(evaldict.get(t, t)) for t in s.split()]
idx = 0
part = collections.Counter()
operands, operators = [part], []
while idx < len(expression):
e = expression[idx]
if e == '(':
operators.append(e)
elif e == ')':
while operators[-1] != '(':
right, left = operands.pop(), operands.pop()
operands.append(self.calc(operators.pop(), left, right))
operators.pop()
elif e in '+-':
while operators and operators[-1] in '+-*':
right, left = operands.pop(), operands.pop()
operands.append(self.calc(operators.pop(), left, right))
operators.append(e)
elif e == '*':
operators.append(e)
else:
part = collections.Counter()
if e.replace('-', '').isdigit(): part[''] += int(e)
else: part[tuple([e])] += 1
operands.append(part)
idx += 1
while operators:
right, left = operands.pop(), operands.pop()
operands.append(self.calc(operators.pop(), left, right))
ans = sorted(operands[-1].items(), key = lambda x: (-len(x[0]), x[0]))
return [str(v) + (k and '*' + '*'.join(k) or '') for k, v in ans if v]
``````

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